复习基础阶段的黄金时期到来了

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  2015年3月份一开学,各位学子迎来了新的学期,这也就意味着考研[微博]复习基础阶段的黄金时期到来了,所以各位学子一定要抓住这段黄金复习期,提高自己的英语基础水平。

  考研英语基础阶段的主要任务是攻克词汇和语法长难句。但是背单词是各位考生最为头疼的事情。与此同时,长难句由于缺乏语境也很难理解。面对此种情况,万学海文为各位学子推荐一种轻松记忆单词和长难句的好方法。在这个阶段,各位学子可以认真研读1994-2004年的真题,从真题中汲取营养,攻克词汇和语法长难句。7月份之前,如果各位考生能够将10年52篇文章做到精读,相信大家的词汇和语法长难句一定会有大的突破,并且为强化阶段的学习奠定坚实的基础。

  基础阶段精读复习方法及步骤:

  1 快速浏览选项,把握文章主题

  2 精读各段落,攻克词汇和语法长难句

  3 作答题目,理解文章含义

  4 翻译全文,再次巩固复习词汇和语法长难句

  下面我们为各位学子精细分析1994年Text1

  The American economic system is organized around a basically private-enterprise, market- oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most. Private businessmen, striving to make profits, produce these goods and services in competition with other businessmen; and the profit motive, operating under competitive pressures, largely determines how these goods and services are produced. Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers, coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it。

  An important factor in a market-oriented economy is the mechanism by which consumer demands can be expressed and responded to by producers. In the American economy, this mechanism is provided by a price system, a process in which prices rise and fall in response to relative demands of consumers and supplies offered by seller-producers. If the product is in short supply relative to the demand, the price will be bid up and some consumers will be eliminated from the market. If, on the other hand, producing more of a commodity results in reducing its cost, this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller-producers, which in turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product. Thus, price is the regulating mechanism in the American economic system。

  The important factor in a private enterprise economy is that individuals are allowed to own productive resources (private property) , and they are permitted to hire labor, gain control over natural resources, and produce goods and services for sale at a profit. In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract with another private individual。

  1. In Para 1, “the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes” means ________。

  [A] Americans are never satisfied with their incomes

  [B] Americans tend to overstate their incomes

  [C] Americans want to have their incomes increased

  [D] Americans want to increase the purchasing power of their incomes

  2. The first two sentences in the second paragraph tell us that ________。

  [A] producers can satisfy the consumers by mechanized production

  [B] consumers can express their demands through producers

  [C] producers decide the prices of products

  [D] supply and demand regulate prices

  3. According to the text, a private-enterprise economy is characterized by ________。

  [A] private property and rights concerned

  [B] manpower and natural resources control

  [C] ownership of productive resources

  [D] free contracts and prices

  4. The text is mainly about ________。

  [A] how American goods are produced

  [B] how American consumers buy their goods

  [C] how American economic system works

  [D] how American businessmen make their profits

  一、 快速浏览选项,把握文章主题

  根据题干中“the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes,a private-enterprise economy”,可知本篇文章属于经济类文章,而且通过individuals和a private-enterprise economy可知本文一定与私有经济有关。

  二、精读各段落,攻克词汇和语法长难句

  词汇精解

  (1) enterprise (n。) 企(事)业单位,事业,事业心,进取心;private ~私人企业,

  (2)orient (v。)为……定方向,为……定位,(n。)东方;oriental (a。) 东方的;-oriented后缀意思是:以……为目标的,如:market- oriened以市场为导向的

  (3)strive (v。) 奋斗,争取,strive to/for/against 努力,争取

  (4)motive (n。) 动机,目的;(a。)运动的,发动的

  (5)coupled with 与……结合在一起;couple (v。) 连接,结合

  (6)mechanism (n。) 机制,机构,机械装置, mechanics(n。)力学,机械学

  (7)bid (n. / v。) 出价,投标, bid up 哄抬价格

  (8)regulating (a。) 调节的,regulate (v。) regulation (n。)

  (9)gain control over获得对……的控制

  (10) profit (n。)利润,收益,益处,at a profit获得利润地;(v。)获益,得利,有利于, profit by/from sth。

  长难句精解

  ①The American economic system is organized around a basically private-enterprise, market- oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most。

  该句的主干是“The American economic system is organized around a… economy in which”, economy 前面的定语修饰成分是private-enterprise, market-oriented,后面是in which 引导的定语从句。从句的主干是“consumers determine what… by spending… for…”, what 引导宾语从句,by引导的分词结构做状语,而这个方式状语中for引导的介词短语又做动词spend的目的状语,此外,其中还嵌套了一个that引导的定语从句。

  译文:美国的经济体制是在基本上由私营企业组成并以市场为导向的经济基础上建立起来的。在这个经济体制上,需要生产什么主要是由消费者在市场上花钱购买他们最需要的商品和服务决定的。

  ②Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers , coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it。

  此句的主干是it is… that together determine…强调句。coupled with和and连接三个并列成分the demand of individual consumers, the desire of businessmen to maximize profits和the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes。determine后是what和how连接的并列的宾语从句,句末it指代的是前面的what shall be produced。

  译文:在美国经济体制中,消费者个人的需求、商人获取最大利润的追求和消费者渴望最大限度地增加自己的收入共同决定应该生产什么和如何利用资源去生产这些产品。

  ③In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract with another private individual 。

  注意句子主干是:the concept of private property embraces not only… but also…。其中including…分词结构做后置定语,对certain rights进行修饰。句中的embrace意思是:拥有,包括。

  译文:在美国经济中,私人财产的概念不仅仅包含对生产资料的所有权,还包含某些其他权利,其中包括对产品的定价格和与另一私营者签订自由合同的权利。

  ④If, on the other hand, producing more of a commodity results in reducing its cost, this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller-producers, which in turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product。

  该句的主干是“If… this will tend to increase… which will…”,前面条件从句的主语是动名词producing, 主句的主语this 指的是reducing its cost这件事,定语从句中的which指代整个主句的内容。in turn意思是:相应地,转而。如:Increased production will, in turn, lead to increased profits。增加生产会继而增加利润。

  译文:另一方面,如果商品的大量生产导致成本的降低,这会促使增加销售商和生产商的供给,从而反过来导致价格下降,致使更多的消费者购买产品。

  三、作答题目,理解文章含义

  1.【答案】D

  【解析】词义句意题。先定位到第一段末句。解题的关键是看对maximize的理解。原文所在句“coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes”将生产者和消费者的愿望对照来说。句中的两个maximize平衡并列,作用、意义完全相同。因此知道maximize在第一处的意义即可知道第二处之意。众所周知,商人总是想用最少的投入取得最大的利润,这就是maximize的意义。由此可知,消费者希望使一定的收入取得最大限度的效益,即用现有收入买到更多更好的商品。而D选项恰是此意。

  A和B选项未在原文提及。C选项反映的是劳资双方的关系,而不是生产者与消费者之间的关系。

  2.【答案】D

  【解析】事实细节题。D选项就是该段第二句“prices rise and fall in response to relative demands of consumers and supplies offered by seller-producers”的概括,为正确答案。

  A选项在这两句中并未涉及。注意文中第一句的mechanism意为“机制”,而该选项中的mechanized意为“机械化”,二者含义不同。误选B选项的考生是对该段首句的语法成分分析错误。它是一个省略句,补全后应该是“An important factor in a market-oriented economy is the mechanism by which consumer demands can be expressed and (by which consumer demands can be) responded to by producers”。由此可知,消费者通过这一机制表达他们的需求,而生产者则通过这一机制对他们的需求作出反应。B选项理解成consumer demands can be expressed…by producers。C选项与第二句“供求关系决定价格”不符,也应该排除。此题亦可通过经济常识解答。

  注意:干扰选项经常使用原文中出现的词语或类似的结构伪造,所以对那些出现了原词的选项一定要仔细辨认真伪。

  3.【答案】A

  【解析】主旨题。题干要求考生回答私营企业经济的特点,即第三段的主题。该段只有两句。第一句强调的是私营企业最重要的因素是个人拥有生产资料(私人财产)、允许个人雇用劳动力和控制自然资源。第二句是指私人财产的概念还包含某些其他权利,如:产品价格的决定权或与其他私有个体的自由签约权。尤其第二句的not only… but also…更表明了此段主旨。A选项是对上述内容的概括,为正确答案。

  而B、C和D选项虽然都在第三段述及,但是都是A选项下的具体内容,缺乏概括性,不应该入选。

  命题意图要求考生区分段落细节与段落中心是局部与整体的关系。

  4.【答案】C

  【解析】主旨题。解此题需要了解文章各段的主旨。第一段论述美国经济体制的构成;第二段介绍市场经济的运行方式;第三段介绍私营经济的特点。后两段是对第一段的进一步论述。由此可见,美国经济体制的构成和运作是本文论述的中心。C选项正反映了这一主题。

  A、B和D选项都在文中有所涉及,但都是具体细节,比较片面,应该排除。此题还可以通过直接对选项进行比较排除来解题。A、B和D都在文中述及,分属于三个独立的、不同的概念。其中任意一个可代表其他两个,而C选项概括性强,可以包括A、B和D,故C为正确答案。

  四、 翻译全文,再次巩固复习词汇和语法长难句

  美国的经济体制是在基本上由私营企业组成并以市场为导向的经济基础上建立起来的。在这个经济体制里,需要生产什么主要是由消费者在市场上花钱购买他们最需要的商品和服务决定的。为了获取利润,私有企业主之间互相竞争,来生产这些产品和提供这些服务。在竞争的压力下运作,追求利润的动机很大程度上决定了生产商品和提供服务的方式。因此,在美国的经济体制中,消费者个人的需求、商人对获取最大利润的追求以及消费者渴望最大化自己的收入,所有这些共同决定了应该生产什么和如何利用资源去生产这些产品。

  在以市场为导向的经济中的一个重要因素是反映消费者需求以及生产者对消费者需求作出反应的机制。在美国经济中,这一机制是由价格体制提供,在价格体系中,价格随消费者的相对需求和出售者及生产者的供应情况而上下浮动。如果产品相对供不应求,价格就会抬升,从而使一些消费者从市场上消失。另一方面,如果商品的大量生产导致成本的降低,这会促使销售商和生产商供给的增加,从而反过来导致价格下降,致使更多的消费者购买产品。因此,价格是美国经济体制中的调节机制。

  私有企业经济的一个重要因素是允许个人拥有生产资料(私有财产),允许他们雇用劳动力,控制自然资源,以及生产产品、提供服务以获取利润。在美国经济中,私人财产的概念不仅仅包含对生产资料的所有权,还包含某些其他权利,其中包括确定产品的价格或与另一私营者签订自由合同。

  来源:万学海文

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